Marketing Mix – 4P`s – Elements, Factors

Marketing Mix – 4P`s – Elements, Factors

The term marketing mix was first coined by James Culliton and was described as 4P`s by Professor Jerome McCarthy. Since then the terms ‘marketing mix’ and ‘4P`s’ have been used synonymously.

Marketing Mix refers to the set of controllable factors that a firm can use to influence the buyer’s response within a given marketing environment. It is used to describe the combination of four inputs (product, price, place, promotion) which constitute the core of a company’s marketing system.

Marketing Mix is the combination of different marketing decision variables used by a firm to market its goods and services. These four marketing mix elements form the core of all marketing efforts.

Elements of Marketing Mix

 Marketing Mix 4P`s

Product – A product is anything that satisfies a consumer need. It may be a good, service, event, experience etc. The first step in marketing is to identify and develop a product that consumers`s demand. It involves decisions regarding:

  • Physical Product
  • Product mix
  • Product variables
  • Product Quality
  • Branding
  • Packaging etc.


Price – Price is the amount of money that a buyer has to pay in order to own a product. A marketer makes price alterations in order to attract the customers through discounts, allowances, coupons etc. The element of price is concerned with determining:

  • Level of prices (low, high)
  • Range of prices
  • Price–Quality relationship
  • Competitors pricing
  • Government control over prices
  • Psychological effect of pricing


Place – It is concerned with the delivery of a product from the place of production to the final consumer. A producer may sell a product directly or through intermediaries. It involves decisions regarding:

  • Channel levels – Manufacturer to Wholesaler to Retailer to Consumer and creation of:
    • Time utility – Product must be available when needed
    • Place utility – Locate products where they can be easily acquired.
    • Possession – Minimize the number of obstacles between the manufacturer and consumer.
  • Inventory management and control
  • Physical distribution of goods
  • Order processing and Transportation


Promotion – Promotion refers to communication of information about a product and its features to potential customers through various forms of media.  It is the process of educating customers through various forms of media about

  • Product Quality
  • Product Utility
  • Product Price

It involves selection of a combination of tools of promotion like advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, publicity and public relations to persuade potential customers to buy a product or service.


Factors affecting Marketing Mix

Market related factors –


Product related factors –

  • Marketing research
  • Product planning
  • Sales promotion
  • Branding
  • Channel of distribution
  • Advertising
  • Personal selling

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