Communication Models – Shannon & Weaver, Westley & Mac lean

Communication Models – Shannon & Weaver, Westley & Mac lean

Communication Models

Shannon and Weaver’s model

Shannon and Weaver’s model is termed as the Mother of all communication models owing to the fact that it is technically advanced than the other communication models. Shannon and Weaver’s model substantiates six factors that are necessary for effective communication. The following are the six factors emphasized by Shannon and Weaver’s model – 

  • Sender
  • Encoder
  • Channel
  • Noise
  • Decoder
  • Receiver

Shannon and Weaver’s model supports Feedback and attaches huge importance to the same. The model emphasizes that without feedback from the receiver, the communication carried out by the Sender is not complete.

In this communication model, the sender encodes the message to be communicated and passes it to the receiver through proper medium or channel. The message then reaches the receiver in the form of noise (voice waves). Any breakage in the noise makes decoding a complicated process for the receiver. In such cases, the receiver provides the feedback to the sender who again encodes the message and forwards the same to the receiver. When the decoding aspect of the noise happens successfully, the communication is said to have completed in a successful manner.

The channel used for transmitting the message plays a crucial role in this model. Failure in any of the six aspects mentioned above disrupts communication of the message from one person to another.

Shannon and Weaver’s model is considered as an advanced model than other communication models due to the importance it attaches to the feedback mechanism which lacks in most of the other communication models.

Westley and Mac lean Model

Westley and Mac lean Model was formulated by Bruce Westley during the 20th century. Westley and Mac lean Model is widely accepted as a Mass Communication tool due to its interpersonal aspects. This model is based on ten factors which are believed to make communication effective.

  • Source – The person who creates the message or the one who sends the message is termed as Source in this model
  • Environment – Environment refers to the situation under which the message to be communicated is created. The situation referred here can be either physical or psychological
  • Sensory feeling – The sensory experience that pushes the creator of the message to create the same
  • Orientation of the Sender – This means the background of the sender who communicated the message to the receiver
  • Encoding and Decoding – The sender or the creator of the message encodes the same in the manner that it can be decoded properly
  • Receiver – Is the person who is responsible for decoding the message transmitted by the sender
  • Orientation of the Receiver – The background and influence of the same on the receiver’s acceptance levels is termed as the orientation of the receiver under this communication model
  • Feedback – Feedback is the communication that happens between the receiver and the sender over the success or failure of the decoding process
  • Editor or Moderator – This role is applicable in mass communication scenarios. People who play this role are responsible for filtering messages to allow ones that are acceptable and cultured
  • Opinion Influencers – This is another role that is found valuable in typical Mass communication scenarios. Opinion influencers have the capability to influence a large number of people owing to their popularity levels

Also Read: David Berlo SMRC Communication Model

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